Entrepreneurship is believed to be the driving force behind economic and social development of nations. In today‘s capitalistic system, entrepreneurs make an accelerated contribution to the economic growth and development of countries through the creation of small enterprises. In major world economies, these enterprises are associated to their overall economic growth and employment, hence the reason why research on this area is very critical. In carrying out the above study, the researcher was guided by five theories of entrepreneurship; the resourced-based, the social cultural, the psychological approach, the ecological and the institutional theory. Due to the nature and requirement of the study, the researcher was biased towards the use of two of the five theories mentioned above; the resourced-based and the psychological approach theory. The study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya and the target was the Matatu entrepreneurs, operating the fourteen sitter public vehicles. Since its inception in Nairobi, the Matatu business has grown both in size and volume. This is assumed to indicate good business performance. However, despite the growth, it is only a few entrepreneurs who have succeeded. This is the problem this study attempted to investigate. The overall objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing performance of Matatu business in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional study and stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Based on the routes and regions, a sample of 364 registered Matatu owners was picked and questionnaires given out giving a response rate of 95%. Results from respondents were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics which indicated that performance in Matatu business was a function of but not limited to, personality traits, human capital, government policies, entry barriers and the management of registered Matatu welfare bodies. The findings from the study revealed that vital information touching on this business were missing in government records. One of the major findings of the study was the positive contribution of the registered industry welfare bodies towards the success of the Matatu business. Another major finding from the study touched on the human capital. That though education is important, the same was not a major performance factor in Matatu business.
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